Saturday, May 23, 2020

Importance of Achieving Equity in Pay Structures - 5344 Words

Importance of Achieving Pay Equity Table Of Contents What is Equity in Organizations? 4 The Equity Theory 4 Inputs 5 Outcomes 6 Importance of Equity in Pay Structure 7 Internal Equity 9 Steps to Achieving Internal Equity 9 Methods Commonly Used 9 Job analysis 9 Job Evaluation 11 Ranking Method 12 Classification Method 13 Factor Comparison Method 13 Point Method of Job Evaluation 14 Strategic Considerations 15 External Equity 16 Steps to Achieving External Equity 16 Compensation Surveys 16 Benefits of Pay Surveys to the Organization 17 Published Compensation Survey 18 Custom Developed Compensation Surveys 19 Compensation Surveys: Strategic†¦show more content†¦When the ratio of inputs to outcomes is close, than the employee should have much satisfaction with their job. Outputs can be both tangible and intangible (Walster, Traupmann Walster, 1978). Typical outcomes include any of the following: †¢ Love †¢ Intimacy †¢ Job Security †¢ Esteem †¢ Salary †¢ Employee benefit †¢ Expenses †¢ Recognition †¢ Reputation †¢ Responsibility †¢ Sense of achievement †¢ Praise †¢ Thanks †¢ Stimuli Importance of Equity in Pay Structure Following are some of the benefits gained by having an equitable pay structure within the organization †¢ It is a protection against legal charges of discrimination based on race, gender, etc. †¢ It brings consistency in the pay structure, therefore allows for easy alignment with overall company strategy. Now it is only required to make adjustments for achieving organizational goals. The already structured and consistent pay structure will easily absorb the changes. In contrast a non-consistent (haphazard) pay structure will require more effort to adopt anyShow MoreRelatedJetBlue Airways Case Study1730 Words   |  7 Pagesteam Experienced Cohesive Smart Well-funded Flexible workforce Serious competition if they threaten major carriers Potential competition with SWA as SWA grows Though industry for start-ups Difficult to hire quickly at high standards No structures for building team and participation as they grow Lack of standardization in HR policies could be source of inequity, division Flight attendants turnover could create high training costs, poor service Jet Blue Strategy: Low cost, low price Read MoreFinancial Ratios Analysis and Comparison Paper1478 Words   |  6 Pagesorganizations to understand their present performance and weak areas in order to generate more effective operational strategies. Financial ratio analysis is an effective tool to determine hospital’s performance on several indicators such as ability to pay debt, capability to generate revenue, and sales performance etc. The objective of this paper is to describe role of different financial ratios in understanding organizational performance and in developing new strategy. The paper also presents comparativeRead MoreBusiness Manangemnt3736 Words   |  15 Pages overtime pay, recognition rewards and sales commission. Compensation can also include non-monetary perks such as a company-paid car, company-paid housing and stock options. Compensation is an integral part of human resource management which helps in motivating the employees and improving organizational effectiveness. Total compensation has three parts: Base compensation The fixed pay an employee receives on a regular basis, either in the form of a salary or as an hourly wage. Pay incentive Read MoreInterpretation of Financial Statements1707 Words   |  7 Pagesthrough deeper analysis. Financial statements are the most widely available source of figures to derive ratios and other measures. Profitability, liquidity, solvency and investors ratios can be calculated. Such ratios and measures are of utmost importance, as we need to assess the return on investment (profitability), the short term financial health of the business (liquidity), the ability to deal with long term obligations and develop future assets (solvency) and earnings ratios. The Chairman’sRead MoreThe Importance Of Cash Flow Through The Organization Of Your Choice1284 Words   |  6 Pagesviable business, especially small scale establishment as it analyses where the money is, where it is coming from and where it is going to. An In-depth knowledge of the company’s profitability and operation is needed in doing this. However, a detailed importance of cash flow knowledge to a viable business includes; helping in establishing how much money is needed and when it will be required, It encourages efficiency in resource use through adequate budgeting and analysis of over and under spending andRead MoreAnalysis Of Harrah Entertainment, Inc.1476 Words   |  6 Pagesservice management (Delong Vijayaraghavan, 2003). Loveman’s focus is around customer service and a belief in incentive pay plans in the form of gain sharing, to reward employees for improvements in customer service metrics. Additionally, in support of this plan, Loveman encourag es managers to communicate the organizations strategy to the employees in a way that messages their importance. They are the heart of the company’s customer-focused strategy; rewarded and respected for their efforts in carryingRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Problem4801 Words   |  20 Pagesorganisation and analyse how effective these tools and techniques are in supporting employee performance; 2. Describe its organisational structure, analyse to what extent this structure is supportive of organisational goals INTRODUCTION The main purpose of essay is to describe the different motivational tools and techniques and the organisational structure used by my organisation. The opening session of essay explains the relevant aspects of my organisation related to the industry, locationRead MoreSlanket Case Study829 Words   |  4 PagesSummary The most important goal for Slanket (a sleeved blanket product) is to create a new marketing strategy that not only reserves current market share, but increases Slanket’s position in the sleeved blanket market. The main impediment to achieving this goal is a competition brand called Snuggie which has successfully penetrated and consumed most of the sleeved blanket market with an inferior product. The best solution for Slanket to regain its market position and increase its market shareRead MoreCase 1-1 Ribbons and Bows Inc1702 Words   |  7 Pagesthe employees of the company s performance to help them understand various business decisions like cost cutting and manpower will also provide them with information about their benefits such as employee loans, bonuses and other variable pays. d. Prospective investors Prospective investors usually asses companies through FS analysis. Their investment decisions greatly rely on stock price movement which is dependent on the profitability and stability of a company. Financial statementsRead More Components of Compensation paid to Employees Essay2459 Words   |  10 Pagesorganisations as it conveys information to an employee about their relative importance to the organisation and provides a scale to identify how much recognition they are receiving for their contribution (Harley and Stephenson, 1992). Compensation shows employees how much they are appreciated and worth. The most important differentiating element between jobs is the effort involved in performing a job (Biesheuval, 1985). †¢ Objectives of pay systems (Harzing and Van Ruysseveld, 1999): Objective: How to

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

California s Overcrowded Prisons Are A Result Of One Of...

California’s overcrowded prisons are a result of one of the highest recidivism rates in the nation . In order to alleviate stress on correctional facilities and to make them efficient, public safety realignment was passed by legislation in 2011. The act of realignment is shifting responsibilities of most offenders from state facilities to county facilities, and the possible changing of the duration of sentences. Furthermore, it is important to understand the effects of realignment on the prison population, and if it is effective at reducing prison populations and making treatment programs more effective. Recidivism has caused some changes in offender characteristics, such as their arrest rates. The overall rate of recidivism has decreased slightly . Recent findings have found that California experienced a drop in the return-to-custody, but that it is recently has begun to increase . This could be a sign that the realignment is ineffective, or this could a normalization of the rate due to the influx of released prisoners. Following that it is found that released offenders arrested within a year has declined slightly, but the population that is arrested multiple has increased . The multiple arrests could be the result of having more time on the street. There are higher conviction rates, which suggested that prosecutors are becoming more efficient. In result, prisoners with multiple convictions has increased. The evidence would suggest that the inmates are not committing moreShow MoreRelatedJust Deserts Theory Of Justice And Its Inefficiencies3191 Words   |  13 Pagesactually work an d make a difference. It is evident with increasingly high rate of crime, high rates of recidivism, the California three strikes rule, and the â€Å"tough on crime† Republican Policy in Texas, that this harsh conservative approach and just deserts theory of criminal justice policy has failed and does not work. With these failures to deter future criminal activity, lower crime rates, and reduce recidivism rates it gives the notion that rehabilitative political philosophy that keeps inRead MorePrison Overcrowding Essay2352 Words   |  10 Pagesinmates began fillin up the United States prison systems. This huge rate of growth in this short amount of time, has greatly contributed to the prison overcrowding that the United States faces today. In fact, the prisons are still filled to the seams. This enormous flood of inmates has made it practically impossible for prison officials to keep up with their facilities and supervise their inmates. One of the main reasons why many priso ns have become overcrowded is because of states’ harsh criminal lawsRead MorePunishment And Tough On Crime Era Policies Essay1983 Words   |  8 Pagestough on crime era policies, harsh prison and jail conditions are being utilized as a form of deterrent to reduce crime and improve public safety. Accordingly, well over â€Å"2.3 million people are in prison or jail, and 700,000 former offenders are returned into society each year and 77 percent were sent back to prison costing taxpayers massive amounts of revenue.† (Mears Cochran, 2015) As a result of this the United States possesses the â€Å"highest incarceration rate in the world† due to this faulty theoryRead MorePrison Overcrowding Essay3058 Words   |  13 PagesPrison Overcrowding In America’s tough economic society, over population has become an exceedingly hot topic issue. However, overcrowding in America’s prison system has been a severe problem since the 1970s. The majority of the changes have come from different policies on what demographic to imprison and for what reason. The perspective of locking up criminals because they are evil is what spawned this (Allen, 2008). Because of this perspective the prison system in America is in need of seriousRead MoreThe Prison System Needs Reform7898 Words   |  32 PagesPrisons have become one of the most polarizing topics, especially, in the United States and even around the world. Whether the prison system needs reform or outside forces are changing how prisons operate. Prisons are becoming overcrowded. Overcrowding is causing problems within the prisons with sexual assault, healthcare, racism, and solitary confinement. These came to more attention in 2014. When T.J. Lane escapes from Allen Oakwood Correctional Institution. T.J. Lane was serving three life sentencesRead MoreEssay about History of the Juvenile Justice System2644 Words   |  11 Pagesthis way. Until the early 1800’s juveniles were tried just like everyone else. Today, that is not the case. This paper will explain the reforms that have taken place within the criminal justice system that developed the juvenile justice system. Before the Progressive Era, children who were over the age of seven were put in jail with adults. In the early part of the 1800’s reformers started to become concerned with the overcrowded environment in the jails and prisons, and the corruption young kidsRead MoreCja 484 Week 5 Learning Team Final Corrections Research Paper and Evaluation2298 Words   |  10 Pagesï » ¿ Options within Corrections 11/4/2013 CJA/484 Correction Proceedings Based on the information gathered from different materials, proceeding with jails, prisons, probation, parole, juvenile, and community corrections may range from many perspectives. Jails and prisons are different from a few perspectives, but it may also vary on the length of time to serve for punishment. Parole and probation are reservation options to help educate criminals about ethical knowledge. Community corrections

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Obesity and Health Care Providers - 1798 Words

1. What is the decision-making process for Metabical? Who is involved in the process? Market research: investigating into the overall adult overweight situation in U.S. fand overweight population and consumers’ perception of the currently existed weight-loss drugs. Analyzing differential advantages: CSP should recognize the Metabical’s competitive factors first. Metabical is the first prescription drug approved by FDA and has less negative side effect and can magically loss weight. Recognizing target consumers: the target consumers are overweight individuals with a BMI of 25-30 who want to live healthier and health care providers who would be prescribing Metabical. Analyzing the main concern of target consumers: for direct consumers,†¦show more content†¦They are concerned with health issues caused by overweight and willing to change lifestyle and behavior. The target consumers are determined by characteristics of Metabical. Firstly, no prescription-drug options which are specifically for the overweight segment (BMI of 25 to 30) were available in 2008. Thus, the market is underserved that easy for Metabical to entry and gain awareness. Secondly, Metabical has negative side effects when users consume high levels of fat and calories. Metabical can achieve effectiveness of weight-loss with the complement of reasonable diet and exercise regimen. The target customers aged 35-65 with college education are mostly to comply with the requirements and the lifestyle skills for healthy weight maintenance after initial weight loss was achieved. Thirdly, the retail price estimated for the drug would be $3-$5 daily with the average course of treatment lasting 12 weeks. $3: expense = $3*7*12= $252 $5: expense = $5*7*12= $420 Thus, the price is more acceptable and worthwhile for consumers with income of more than $80000. 3. How should CSP identify and employ the differential advantages that Metabical offers to position itself in the marketplace? Before CSP positions Metabical in the marketplace, CSP should analyze strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of Metabical. Then CSP could position MetabicalShow MoreRelatedObesity and Health Care Providers809 Words   |  4 PagesInformation search * From internal search, knowing that it’s extremely hard to reach weight-loss goal on their own and even harder to maintain, thus need some medical help * From external search, most probably from commercial sources or health care providers, they become aware that the new FDA-approved weight-loss drug called ‘Metabical’ offers much less safety concern with â€Å"one pill a day† low-dose formulation amp; a comprehensive support program for healthy weight maintenance afterwards Read MoreDesign Interventional Models For Primary Care Providers1619 Words   |  7 Pagesthe years from proven evidence-based research, there is a need for intervention as primary care physicians attempt to address the issue of adult obesity. Obesity can be linked to many adverse health outcomes such as: diabetes, hypertension and stroke as suggested by the National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (2012). The purpose of this project is to design interventional models for primary care providers to implement into a wellness program. The program includes increased knowledge of nutritionalRead MoreObesity And Healthcare Economics : A Growing Problem Within The United States1661 Words   |  7 PagesObesity and Healthcare Economics A growing problem within the United States (US), as well as internationally, is the increasing epidemic of obesity. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recognizes a body mass index (BMI), measured in units of kg/m2, 25.0-29.9 as overweight, 30+ as obese, and 40+ as extreme obesity (CDC, 2015). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number one cause of death is non-communicable diseases (2015), which include diabetes, heart disease, hyperlipidemiaRead More The Teaching-Learning Experience Essay1337 Words   |  6 Pagesare many factors in society that have both a direct and indirect influence on the competencies that our student nurses and colleagues need to attain to provide competent evidenced based care. Nursing has a social duty to ensure positive patient care outcomes and contribute to society through knowledge based care. The first step that this author think that we must do as nurse educators in order to have a role in this duty is assess the society for c hanges that are occurring that we must prepareRead MoreObesity : Questions And Answers On Health Care Stakeholders1408 Words   |  6 Pagesaddress the incidence of obesity among the residents would impact health care providers, insurance companies and fast food restaurants. Enacting a policy to address obesity would directly impact health care providers. Health care providers would discuss with patients that are obese and how they could lose weight. This means that health care providers will be getting more patients which equals to getting more money. An individual that is obese will be at risk for many health conditions. That individualRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Obesity911 Words   |  4 PagesObesity Obesity is defined as having too much total body fat and a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. BMI is an estimate of body fat and is calculated from your height and weight. Prolonged obesity is a serious health concern that can cause major illnesses, including: †¢ Stroke. †¢ Heart disease. †¢ Diabetes. †¢ Cancer. †¢ Arthritis. †¢ High blood pressure (hypertension). †¢ High cholesterol. †¢ Sleep apnea. †¢ Erectile dysfunction. †¢ Infertility problems. Your weight does not need to be a lifelong problemRead MoreHealth System Differences : Louisiana And Illinois823 Words   |  4 PagesHEALTH SYSTEM DIFFERENCES: LOUISIANA AND ILLINOIS The Health system in Louisiana and Illinois is widely different on basis of access to healthcare, mental health issues and many others. Looking at overall performance of healthcare system by measuring 42 different variables such as at systemic level, from insurance coverage to vaccination rates to avoidable hospital stays and at individual level, from rate of obesity to numbers of adults who have lost six or more teeth, Illinois is among the thirdRead MoreThe On Health Care Delivery1606 Words   |  7 PagesDeclaration of 1978 had significant consequences on health care delivery in Australia, facilitating the introduction of primary health care (PHC) in Australia. PHC refers to an â€Å"integral† health care approach (World Health Organization [WHO], 1978), defined through its principles of accessibility, public participation, health promotion, intersectoral collaboration and appropriate technology (Downey Westera, 2009). Relations between obesity, being a National Health Pr iority Area (NHPA), and PHC will be expoundedRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effects Essay1049 Words   |  5 PagesChildhood obesity is at an all-time high in the United States and should be a major concern for the nation. With childhood obesity steadily rising, it is imperative that actions be implemented to offset this trend. Childhood obesity places children at a significantly higher risk for a multitude of physical and psychological health concerns. It is important to understand the actions that have been set in motion that attempt to resolve this issue. Additionally, it should be determined if these actionsRead MoreThe Study s Intervention Was An Asp That Was Implemented Twice Per Week1204 Words   |  5 Pages12 weeks. The bilingual ASP included about a half an hour of health education and an hour of physical activity. The valid curriculum was also adapted culturally for Mexican-American children. The health outcomes included BMI, BMI percentile, aerobic capacity, dietar y preferences, and health knowledge. Aerobic capacity was measured via the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test, and dietary preferences and health knowledge were measured by a self-completed survey and previously

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Obamacare Cause and Effect Essay - 1045 Words

ObamaCare and the Healthcare System Cause and Effect Essay ObamaCare and the Healthcare System Medical and health insurance is a very helpful and needed aid in America. Although not everyone can get it since some have pre-existing conditions, it helps a great deal of people. One of the terms in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a.k.a. ObamaCare, says that even children with pre-existing conditions are guaranteed medical insurance. This may seem like a great thing to some, but that means insurance companies are going to have to raise their existing premiums because they will have to pay for much higher risk patients. In addition to the higher premiums, the insurance companies will cut back on the payments they make to†¦show more content†¦This is forcing the doctors to no longer accept certain insurance companies such as medicaid because they aren’t being reimbursed for the services they’re providing to the consumers that are using medicaid. One doctor, Dr. Martha Boone in Atlanta, Georgia, said that she w ould have to see 20 patients an hour in order to make any reimbursement from medicaid. She said that medicaid paid none of their bills coming from her office for 18 months and when her office sent registered letters to Medicaid to see what the problem was they said it was a computer error and still didn’t reimburse her office (Heritage, 2010). Because most doctors don’t receive money from Medicaid, most of them don’t accept it. â€Å"Of the 93 internists affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital, for example, only 37 accept Medicare, according to the hospital’s Web site.† (Connelly, 2009). This forces the Medicaid consumers to go to the emergency room when they need help since normal doctors rarely take their insurance. Dr. Lloyd Krieger says that the undoing of this healthcare bill is, â€Å"an urgent necessity.† because it is, â€Å"doing great damage even years before it’s individual mandates and other controls kick in.† (Krieger, 2011). Not only is ObamaCare going to cause premiums to increase and cause doctors andShow MoreRelatedHealth Care1502 Words   |  7 Pagesb Running Head: OBAMACARE The Obama Care Policy American National Government POL 201 Jacqueline Arnold Instructor Kimminau January 8, 2013 OBAMACARE 1 In this short essay about the â€Å"Obama HealthCare Policy,† I will discuss the problems of the policy. I plan to explain the history, and the meaning of this policy. In this essay I will be discussing the pros and cons of the Obama HealthCare Policy, as well as the issue’s with the FederalismRead MoreThe Affordable Care Act ( Obamacare )1604 Words   |  7 Pages Ever since Barack Obama signed the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) into law in 2010, it has been met by criticism from many people from many different ideologies. Although the law held promise for allowing all individuals to afford healthcare and all of its benefits, that is not to say it does not have its downsides. Since passing, both the conservative and democratic parties have found reasons to dislike the law. This essay will include a description of the law itself, criticisms from the two partiesRead MoreU.s. Government s Government1202 Words   |  5 Pagesman to see the government s point of view. In addition, due to recent and past events, is nearly impossible for the American government to restore their trust with the people. The critical analysis question that it will be shown throughout the essay is What recent events have affected Americans to trust in the government? What might it take to restore Americans trust in the federal government? Many American citizens feel the lack of interest of the government towards them. About 80 percentRead MoreEssay On Marginalization1727 Words   |  7 Pagesfuture of social security is in jeopardy due to the current economic climate. Calvinism Calvinism derived from the protestant religion developing from Part II: Midterm Essay #1 Donald Trump’s presidency has revealed a huge divide in our nation. The separation that exists among our country has proven detrimental effects to our American political climate. Social policies should ensure that the underserved are being properly represented from those who are in power. Unfortunately, it has becomeRead MoreWhy Doctors Commit Malpractice And Does Obama Care Lead Into This?1901 Words   |  8 Pagesexamining evidence and background information about the reasons doctors’ commit malpractice the causes and effects from obamacare and and discussing current actions being taken to address the problem, this essay will explore the problem with why doctors’ commit malpractice and the causes and effects of obamacare in order to enact change, I will send a survey to my local hospital with this essay. Background information and evidence of the problem today One of the problems according to LeapeRead MoreAnalyzing Social Policy: Obama Care1099 Words   |  5 Pagesof quality health services to all the members of the society. In this area, the phenomenon of Obama Care has been one of the best examples of how ideology and politics can cause a lot of problems on the way towards establishing a just and more humane society. This essay is a fact-based analysis of the intentions behind and effect of the US health care reform of 2010, known under the name of Obama Care. The social problem that got its solution in the form of Obama Care was essentially the fact thatRead MoreA Brief Note On The Swedish Healthcare System1175 Words   |  5 Pages The United States has recently adopted Obamacare, which, like any other new system, has been subject to harsh scrutiny. Presidential campaigns are beginning and many candidates have voiced their opinions on how to change Obamacare or simply repealing it altogether and going back to what we had before. The healthcare debate often causes people to ask themselves how we are doing compared to other countries and how do other countries operate. In this essay, I will talk about the Swedish healthcareRead MoreDefunding the Aca1778 Words   |  8 PagesHealthcare REFORM, Essay Component 1 Essay on Healthcare Reform: In Defense of Obamacare by Ultius in Sample Work Without a doubt, universal healthcare is one of the numerous issues that was discussed intensely in the 2012 elections that will continue to be debated into the future. While President Obama passed his compelling piece of legislation in 2010, the Affordable Care Act, there was an undeniable polarization within the American people which ensued. Regardless, even with all of theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Federalist 10 And 51 Essay2208 Words   |  9 Pageseither faction’s desire reaches the government, it has to go through the process of debating each other. The result of this is either the factions act as counteracting weights and nullify each other, or the stronger faction wins and that opinion effects Congress’ decision. The other version of tyranny feared was that of the elite. As another attempt to assure the people of New York that the new government established would not allow for tyranny of the elite, he wrote, â€Å"ambition must be made toRead MoreThe Misunderstandings of Socialism1238 Words   |  5 PagesConservative talking heads such as Bill O’Reilly equate it to socialism because, as Mr. O’Reilly says himself, â€Å"[i]n order to provide for the have nots, the far left wants the federal government to seize the assets of solvent Americans. That’s what ObamaCare [the Affordable Health Care Act] is all about — taking from those who can afford health care to provide for those who cannot† (O’Reilly). This simplification of socialism does not do justice to the actual paradigm itself. Instead, in this paper I

Course Notes Free Essays

Can organic farmers produce enough food to feed the world? Discuss this question commenting on the place of organic farming in sustainable food systems In order for organic farming to produce enough food for the world In a sustainable system, Limiting factors to production In the organic system need to be overcome. Through yields outputs to primarily disease control and fertilizers, this method of farming could solve global hunger and world starvation, giving us a On the other hand, conventional agricultural production systems are not necessarily sustainable-perhaps we need a compromise. Continual cropping and grazing, together with over use of herbicides, Insecticides and fertilizers are Inarguably damaging to the environment and the web of life. We will write a custom essay sample on Course Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now There has often been a proposal that Northern Australia could become the food bowl of Australia. The argument against this Is often that disease and pest control In the Northern climates is a major Limiting factor to production. Extrapolating this to a world situation, I don’t believe organic farming on a world scale could achieve the production levels required to feed the escalating population. Without conventional inputs, which are not always organically friendly, I cannot see adequate production to feed the world. Perhaps in to the future this can be achieved. As dad just pointed out-in the North of Australia, and this would be in other matching arid countries of the world, animal production, is relatively easily to be organically certified because they don’t need to use drench, fertilizers etc-only some feed supplements which could be organic. The problem areas are the more tropical areas where disease and pest control are more difficult in an organic plant production system. -produce food of optimum quality and quantity using sustainable farming practices -produced in over 130 countries -represent fastest growing food sector worldwide -market analyst forecast annual growth rates between 10-30% around the world -basis is -healthy, biologically active soil -enhance and maintain How to cite Course Notes, Papers

Case Study Tea wholesaling Company Owner - Lou

Question: Assignment Question Lou, the owner of a tea wholesaling company, decided about a year ago that product quality of some imported sources was too variable. To improve consistency of the product Lou decided he would employ someone to test samples of imported product and grade them. His retired Uncle Jim came to mind. He was a food scientist and using his skills would also assist him by keeping him busy. Lou approached Jim with an agreement titled Contract for Services, devised by the companys lawyer. It involved Jim agreeing not to be an employee and to have his own incorporated consulting business. The agreement included a clause suggesting he was not permitted to delegate any of his responsibilities at the tea company to another unless he got Lous approval. The agreement also stated he would be paid a set fee for each day he came to the warehouse and worked and a monthly pay date. Although not mentioned in the agreement, Jim was to pay his own taxes and make his own superannuation contributions. He was supplied with a warehouse uniform and all the equipment he required to perform his scientific analysis. Jim worked from 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday for eight months without a day off and then suffered a serious heart attack. His daily routine at work had involved him checking in with Lou for instructions on the days work, Lous oversight of his progress during the day and an assignment of administrative support to support him at particular times. Toward the end of the financial year Jim was asked to supervise a couple of juniors in stocktaking processes, for about four weeks, but he had otherwise stuck to his scientific analysis. One of the policies Lou added to the Employee Handbook last year was an anti-bullying policy. The policy required a particular procedure to be followed if bullying was detected by any member of staff, and indicated management would treat the behaviour, if confirmed on investigation, as serious misconduct and it was likely to result in disciplinary procedures being taken. The policy was not included in staff contracts but they were all alerted to it on commencement of their engagement. Jim had reported the two juniors he had supervised as bullies just before his heart attack. He made a written complaint stating their language was repeatedly demeaning to him and their regular slapping of him on the back was so aggressive it upset him to the point he was ready to resign. Lou was aware of his issues with the young workers and wonders what he is required to do now that Jim is convalescing and may not return to work. Advise Lou whether Jim could be regarded as an employee, despite their written agreement. He is contractually bound to follow the Employee Handbook procedure in relation to the bullying complaint. He has breached any common law duty to Jim even if he is not contractually bound to follow the Employee Handbook procedure. Answer: This case study is about a tea wholesaling company owner, Lou who decided to hire a person to test the product quality of some imported products. Hence, he approached his uncle, Jim who was a food scientist and using his skills would also assist Lou by keeping him busy. He approached Jim with an agreement titled Contract for Services, devised by the companys lawyer. Contract for Services is generally an agreement whereby a person agrees to serve the employer as an independent contractor. Under this, there is no employee-employer relationship between the two parties. Hence, the employee is not covered under Employment Act (Brank, 2012). Hence, Jim couldnt be regarded as his employee since the contract already had a clause about it (Brank, 2012). Although Jim was hired by the company at fixed salary but he couldnt be considered employee since he signed Contracts for Services with the company. Hence, by no means, Jim can be considered an employee. If he would have been an employee, he w ould have signed Contract of Services. Hence, Jim couldnt be regarded as his employee. Second case taken in this case study is about the bullying. In order to safeguard the interest of the employees, Workplace Safety Health Act has been enacted in Western Australia (Farrington, 2009). Workplace Safety Health Act, WA ensures that no employer can exploit his employee in any way. In WA, the Workplace Safety and Health Act is a critical part of the new framework that is accountable to cultivate good habits in all the individuals so as to integrate a strong working culture in the workplace. In the case study, the legal issue which has come up is Anti-Bullying Issue. At workplaces, bullying remains a critical issue. By definition, bullying refers to a systematic campaign of interpersonal destruction that put a great impact on physical, mental and psychological health of a person. It is a common phenomenon observed at workplaces, educational institutes etc (U.S Department, 2010). As per reports, the primary reason that bullying is so common at workplaces is that it is not y et illegal and even illegal, bullying is practiced fearlessly by employees. In this case study, I think, Lou is not contractually bound to follow the Employee Handbook procedure in relation to the bullying complaint. This is because anti-bullying policy was added to Employee Handbook procedure but not to Staff contracts. Hence, he is not contractually bound to follow it but it was his common law duty to listen to the complaints of the employees or other stakeholders about any kind of bullying. By definition, Employee Handbook procedure mentions about how all employees, regardless of their job or role in the company should behave in the organisation (Voten, 2011). The handbook is given to every employee irrespective of his job or title in the organisation. If anti-bullying policy was made part of Employee Handbook procedure then it is crucial to follow when authorities sense or receive complaints about bullying acts in the company (U.S Department, 2010). Although Lou, himself added a nti-bullying policy to Employee Handbook procedure last year yet he didnt take any action against the complaint registered by Jim. As per the anti-bullying policy added by Lou in the Employee Handbook procedure, particular procedure to be followed if bullying was detected by any member of staff, and indicated management would treat the behaviour, if confirmed on investigation, as serious misconduct and it was likely to result in disciplinary procedures being taken. However, no such action was taken when Jim reported about the two juniors whom he had supervised as bullies just before his heart attack. As per Australian law, Jim should have been given compensation since no action was taken in spite of his regular complaints. There are numerous bullying cases registered in which respondent had to face alleged behaviour and even forced to leave his employment on account of regular complaints of bullying. But they were given justice and paid lump-sum amount of compensation to repay their damages. For example, a case of bullying was registered in 2006 in Western Australia against four men who worked with close proximity to a female worker in a Bank. As compensation, female worker was awarded damages of nearly two million Australian Dollars. It was alleged by the female worker that four male workers who worked with close proximity to her bullied her. The alleged behaviour shown to the lady worker included passing lewd comments on her, ignoring her presence and laughing when she walked in the room. Unlike Jim, lady also raised the complaint of bullying with her manager and HR manager but no effective were taken by them. As a result, when complaint reached high command of the bank, four men were fired and were asked to pay a compensation of two million Australian dollars. In another case, Ms Kumar consistently reported about her late pay. After regular complaints from her, Ms Kumar was forced out of her employment and was also victimised in number of ways such as humil iating, hurtful behaviour towards her and isolated. When this was known to Deputy President of the company, he found it totally unfair. Hence, judge ordered that respondent must be paid 38 week salary at the rate of $627 a week. In third case, a woman who was performing office and driving duties for a caravan company was abused and employer forced her to fulfil unreasonable demands. In her lunch time, she was made to perform bank duties also. She was asked by the employer to mail a copy of cheque drawn in favour of supplier back to office. This was indeed embarrassing but woman was made to do so. The employer reacted in an abusive manner when he came to know that woman had missed her lunch to visit bank and had also not procured the manufacturing parts to clients. The employer gave her an ultimatum that if she would not perform her duties well, she would be fired. The NSW commission accepted the evidence given by the woman and stated that the behaviour the employer had shown to the lady worker was unfair. Hence, employer was made to pay $8400 as the compensation to lady. In another case, a senior management employee of the company was sacked on grounds of bullying and humiliating nature towards junior employees. Mr Purse, a senior legal officer by the Commonwealth Attorney General department was dismissed for breaching the code of conduct. It was stated that officer abused the junior physically and verbally. He used to yell at juniors, use abusive words and also push them at some instances. Although Mr Purse claimed that his dismissal was unfair but upon inspection it was known that all the evidences against him were valid (Brank, 2012). Hence, in Jims case also, it was crucial for Lou to provide compensation to Jim. Thirdly, Lou has breached a common law duty to Jim even if he is not contractually bound to follow the Employee Handbook procedure. Though he was not contractually bound to follow the handbook of Employee procedure yet as an employer, it was his duty to take actions against the culprits. It could hamper the productivity of work and loss of an honest employee due to carelessness of Lou. The principles governing Workplace Safety and Health Law at workplaces in Western Australia are reducing risk by making all the stakeholders to reduce the risk they cater, providing greater ownership of Safety and strictly preventing acts of bullying or other accidents by leveraging high penalties on convicts (Taylor, 2012). These are the key underlying principles of Workplace Safety and Health Law. The features of the Workplace Safety and Health Law in Western Australia include: It held every stakeholder responsible to ensure safety at workplaces and ensuring no employee bullies others. To focuses on the safety of the workplace. It facilitates effective enforcement by issuing remedial orders. It imposes strict and high penalties on those whose behaviour is found abusive and in adherence to the conduct (Taylor, 2012). In Australia, there is no clear definition of what constitutes bullying. Hence, it is one of the critical problems for employees. Apart from employees, around 20,000 students are affected by bullying in various Australian schools (Taylor, 2012). Being an intentional cruelty, every individual might have to go through it regardless of age, gender, caste and religion. Although various studies state that it normal but it can lead to tragic consequences in some cases. Bullying often results in numerous negative impacts on employees and working environment of the organisation. Since Lou didnt take any action against the culprits so it gave an unnecessary advantage to them to continue showing hostile behaviour towards others (Davenport, 1999). As a result, Jim suffered a heart attack. Some more effects of bullying and harassment at workplaces are: 1. Increased in absenteeism due to the fear and panic among employees leading to hampering of work: One of the impacts of bullying at workplace is increased absenteeism i.e. more employees prefer taking leaves due to fear and panic than coming to office. Hence, it hampers the productivity of work. 2. Increased stress among fellow employees which leads to increased errors in work: Second impact of bullying is increase in stress. This is one of the signs which is stated in case study also that Jim might have suffered heart attack due to constant bullying by two juniors. 3. Decrease in performance of employees and productivity at work: Third impact is decrease in performance of employees which is observed in the case of Jim. He had to take leave from work due to heart attack and there are changes that he might not return. 4. Lack of motivation in staff: Above impacts often leaves staff unmotivated and unhappy. Hence, they cant focus on work completely. 5. Increased time spent on jugglin g up with complaints: Due to large bullying case, management is required to spend maximum time handling those complaints in spite of thinking about growth of the company. In the case of Lou also, there may be chances that many such cases of bullying might go unreported (Ericson, 2001). Hence, it is common law duty of Lou to take action against the culprits though he wasnt bound contractually. If he would have intervened in the case, Jim might have not suffered heart attack. References 1. Ericson, N. (2001). "Addressing the Problem of Juvenile Bullying". OJJDP Fact Sheet #FS-200127 (U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) 27. 2. Davenport, N. (1999). Mobbing: Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace., Civil Society Publishing. 3. Taylor, A. (2012). "The University of Manchester Dignity at Work and Study Policy". The University of Manchester. 4. U.S Department, (2010). "State Laws Related to Bullying Among Children and Youth". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Health Resources and Services Administration - Maternal and Child Health Bureau.5. Brank, E. (2012). "Bullying". Annual Review of Law and Social Science (Annual Reviews) 8: 213230. doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-102811-173820. Accessed 13 Feb, 2015.6. Bennett, E. (2006). Peer Abuse Know More!: Bullying from a Psychological Perspective., Infinity. Accessed on 13 Feb, 2015.7. Farrington, D. (2009). School-Based Programs to Reduce Bullying., campbellcollabor Accessed on 13 Feb, 2015.8. Voten, M. (2011). A largeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ scale evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program., Wiley Online Library. Accessed on 13 Feb, 2015.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Management Of Diverse Workforce Remains †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Management Of Diverse Workforce Remains? Answer: Introduction Globalization is increasing the demand for the people in organizations across the world to interact with other people from across different and diverse cultures, background, beliefs and practices (Green, Lpez, Wysocki Kepner, 2002). People are not confined to the safe boundaries of their organizations. Instead, employees are forced to compete in a flatter world and economy with stiff competitions from across the entire world. Therefore, organizations have no option but to open up to the reality of the world and establish systems and processes that embrace the concept of diversity if they hope to remain relevant and competitive (Kulik, 2014). The purpose of this paper is to explore the available information and the rationale for diversity in the contemporary business environment. The paper is arranged as follows. The first section provides a definition of the concept diversity in relation to human resource and business management. The paper provides a detailed discussion of the rationale of diversity management in business context. An examination of the demographic drivers and their implication for diversity and human resource management is conducted. A discussion of the challenges and opportunities of a diversity management program is then presented, including the related advantages and disadvantages and how human resource is able to meet and address the issues of diversity management. A discussion is presented on the argument to make to Mark French regarding the business case for diversity management in CERA. A conclusion is then made on the trends and outlook of diversity management and the positioning of the human res ource managers to implement the diversity program effectively. Concept and Definition of Diversity Diversity refers to variety or differences in a given composition. In management, diversity is a broad term suggesting the talent mix and differences evident in the organization workforce and workplaces. The concept, understanding and application of diversity varies from one person and organization to another (Wagner III Hollenbeck, 2014). According to Okoro and Washington (2012), diversity entails recognizing, appreciating and embracing employees differences in terms of age, ethnicity, class, gender, race, sexual orientation, physical and mental capabilities, and spirituality, among other individual differences. Surface level diversity refers to the observable differences among people, including the physical attributes, age, ethnicity, gender race, while deep level diversity refers to the psychological differences among employees that include attitude, personality, beliefs and values (Fisher, Bell, Dierdorff Belohlav, 2012). Regardless of the definition adopted, the concept of div ersity remains the same, and this are the salient differences among the workforce that affect that affect work relationships, performance and achievement. The Rationale for Diversity in HR and Business Management Today, organizations contend with issues of migration and the resulting population mix, ethnic and racial diversity, giving rise to many dilemmas (Castles, De Haas Miller, 2013). It should be noted that with the increasing differences in the world populations, coupled with the opening up of the globe, management of diversity is becoming increasingly important. Companies are under pressure to develop open and inclusive systems, procedures and work structures that appeal to, attract and manage a diverse workforce. This is especially important given that research evidence point to a positive relationship between embracing diversity with improved productivity, profitability and sustainable competitive advantages among organizations (Wagner III Hollenbeck, 2014; Andrevski, Richard, Shaw Ferrier, 2014; Lu, Chen, Huang Chien, 2015). It makes business and management sense to attract, manage and retain a diverse workforce to reap from the obvious accruing opportunities and advantages presented by the practice (D'Netto, Shen, Chelliah Monga, 2014). Workforce diversity constitutes an important competitive asset in the contemporary business organizations (Richard Miller, 2013). It is important for organizations to shift their perspectives concerning diversity and invest in valuing and appreciating workforce diversity if they hope to have effective human resource management, and reap from the value of improved workplace performance and productivity (Richard Miller, 2013). Demographic Drivers of Diversity The workplace is changing at a very fast rate. The most obvious change is the increased intake and control of women in the work environment (Kirton, G., Greene, 2015). Women are increasingly becoming active in the workplace as employees, managers, CEOs, heads of organizations, business owners, challenging the previously male dominated areas (Davidson, 2016). The women are increasingly tasked with contribution to the family income, forcing them to seek competitive employment alongside their male counterparts. Moreover, there is a blurring of the social roles, implying that women can now go for the jobs that were once considered male careers. Consequently, diversity issues are evident across the gender and racial divide. Other than increased uptake of women in employment, another driver of diversity is the ongoing trend of organization restructuring evident across the globe. Today, issues of restructuring, downsizing, rightsizing, business process outsourcing and adoption of robotics technologies are affecting the way that organizations hire and manage people (Cummings Worley, 2014). The workforce has significantly reduced as organizations look to get efficiency and cost management through intensive investment in technology, trends that continue to influence the ways organizations manage its human capital and ability of the company to reap from the benefits that accrue from having a diverse workforce (Cummings Worley, 2014). Technology, globalization, service explosion, internet and increased working hours are continuously transforming the understanding of the traditional workplace, creating new challenges and possibilities of human resource management, and pushing for a significant reduction in the size of workforce that the organization can sustain. The biggest driving force for diversity is the legal environment, which makes discrimination illegal. Consequently, employees enjoy equal rights and opportunities for employment irrespective of their individual and personal differences (Visconti, 2015). People from racial and ethnic minorities are able to enjoy the same rights and opportunities to employment available to the majority groups in the society (Travers, Smaldone Gross Cohn, 2015). The legal framework defines the rights, responsibilities and obligations of both the employees and employers thus ensuring that the management of human resource is fair and just, and that all people have access to all the employment opportunities available without discrimination. Challenges and Opportunities of Diversity This section aims to examine the various opportunities and advantages offered by implementing diversity programs in human resource management. It also examines the challenges, threats and disadvantages arising from the adoption of diversity programs in human resource management in the contemporary business organizations. The benefits and opportunities of diversity accrue to both the employer and the employees. Employees mainly enjoy the benefits and opportunities of gaining equal employment without discrimination (Guillaume, Dawson, Woods, Sacramento West, 2013). Moreover, employees are able to work with and learn from different people, creating cultural competence and personal development through establishment of different social relationships (Chrobot-Mason Aramovich, 2013). Organizations that embrace diversity are able to attract talent , skills, competence and experience by recruiting people from different backgrounds that has potential to improve organization performance, productivity and profitability (Singh, Winkel Selvarajan, 2013). Through adherence to diversity, organizations are able to reduce lawsuits arising from discriminations and poor treatment of people from different backgrounds. Moreover, recruitment of a diverse workforce improves organization image and reputation as an equal employer thus attracting qualified talent and auguring well in the market (Guillaume, Dawson, Woods, Sacramento West, 2013). In addition, diversity creates room for creativity, innovation and different working styles through fostering an environment where different ideas from different people are nurtured to create a competitive organization (Chrobot-Mason Aramovich, 2013). A diverse workforce enjoys flexibility, creativity, adaptability and synergetic working relationships that drive organization performance, creating excellent and high performing teams that ultimately contribute to the bottom line of the organization (Singh, Winkel Selvarajan, 2013). Despite the opportunities enumerated above, diversity also has its own downside, which can have negative effects on the organization. Managing a diverse workforce is a serious challenge for human resource managers in modern organizations (Espinoza Ukleja, 2016). The biggest challenge to diversity is employee resistance and the changes it represents, which creates a serious management hurdle for the HR manager (Espinoza Ukleja, 2016). Moreover, diversity is not just hiring different people, it entails establishing a strategic management approach that encompass appreciating individual differences, inclusiveness, dealing with discrimination and promoting constructive feedback (Podsiadlowski, Grschke, Kogler, Springer Van Der Zee, 2013). The organization culture, pre-existing structures, and negative attitudes in the workplace can easily thwart efforts aimed towards attaining diversity with serious repercussions on the morale, workplace relationships and overall organization productivity and performance (Kirton Greene, 2015). Moreover, HR managers face the challenges of addressing stereotypes, discriminations and prejudices against specific groups of people and employees in the organization. There is a risk that these prejudices can infiltrate the hiring, recruitment, retention and promotion decisions in the organizations (Vance Paik, 2015). In the event this takes place, bias and doubt is introduced in the organizations, killing any chances of synergy and leading to the disintegration of the workplace, with potentially damaging organization outcomes. A Case for CERA Following a review of the literature and examination of pros and cons of diversity in the workplace and organizations, I am thoroughly convinced that diversity is a strategic component of any human resource management strategy. My argument to Mark French is pegged on the value of diversity in fostering sustainable competitive advantage for CERA. It is important for CERA to pursue and embrace diversity as this contributes to organization creativity, innovation and success through attracting the right pool of talent, hiring the people and fostering effective work relations that have the potential to improve the performance and productivity of CERA. Nevertheless, to create a highly successful and diverse workforce, CERA needs to invest in systems and infrastructure that support diversity, including promoting effective human resource managers. It is important for Mark to understand that discrimination is a serious threat to diversity and its consequences have the potential of wrecking the organization and destroying any performance and profitability attained by CERA over the years that they have been operating. It is important for the managers at CERA to examine their own cultural biases and attain cultural competence to avoid the chances of their bias influencing their decisions in managing human resources since this has the potential to limit ability of the organization to appreciate, attain and embrace diversity in managing the workforce. Diversity in human resource management is not about managing the different groups of people, but rather appreciating the fact that people are essentially different yet their differences represents varied value prepositions and usefulness that they bring to the team, workplace and organization setting. It is important to learn how to tap into the different abilities, values, abilities and skills of people to create business value for CERA. Organization learning on effective management of diverse workforce is critical to the attainment of current and future goals and objectives. CERA will be able to attain competitive advantage and stay ahead of the rest if effective programs are implemented to attract and retain diverse workforce. Since diversity extends beyond affirmative action and development of equal employment policies, it is important for CERA to adopt a transformational shift in its organization culture systems and processes to focus more on employee development. This is the mo st important step in attaining diversity and ensuring development of a strong, diverse and competitive workforce. Conclusion The world, the marketplace and the workforce is changing at a relatively fast rate, creating opportunities for adoption and diversity in the management of human resources. Though there are obvious challenges and threats to implementing diversity in the workplace, this study has demonstrated that the practice is invaluable in promoting organization performance, productivity and profitability that all contribute to a sustainable competitive advantage. A review of books and peer reviewed journal articles on the subject of diversity points to the immense opportunities available for strategic human resource managers to take advantage of diversity management programs to harness the value and benefits of a diverse workforce. While diversity can bring about significant benefits and value to the organization, its implementation is often difficult and challenging, requiring high level of skills and expertise from the human resource manager and adoption of a strategic approach to human resources management. It is important to utilize various tools and programs to promote and embrace diversity in the workplace. The starting point is assuming a cultural shift and transformation of attitudes to ensure adoption of an open and inclusive culture that fosters integration and working together of people from different backgrounds. Carefully crafted and employee driven employment policies and programs can be a real deal breaker in attaining diversity and ensuring synergy and effective relationships in the workplace. Since modern workplaces have diverse cultures with people from different backgrounds it would be important to nurture a learning organization that is flexible enough to adapt to meet the different needs an d expectations of the different mix of people. References Andrevski, G., Richard, O. C., Shaw, J. D., Ferrier, W. J. (2014). Racial diversity and firm performance: the mediating role of competitive intensity.Journal of Management,40(3), 820-844. Castles, S., De Haas, H., Miller, M. J. (2013).The age of migration: International population movements in the modern world. Palgrave Macmillan. Chrobot-Mason, D., Aramovich, N. P. (2013). The psychological benefits of creating an affirming climate for workplace diversity.Group Organization Management,38(6), 659-689. Cummings, T. G., Worley, C. G. (2014).Organization development and change. Cengage learning. Davidson, M. (Ed.). (2016).Women in Management Worldwide: Progress and Prospects. CRC Press D'Netto, B., Shen, J., Chelliah, J., Monga, M. (2014). Human resource diversity management practices in the Australian manufacturing sector.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,25(9), 1243-1266. Espinoza, C., Ukleja, M. (2016).Managing the Millennials: Discover the core competencies for managing today's workforce. John Wiley Sons. Fisher, D. M., Bell, S. T., Dierdorff, E. C., Belohlav, J. A. (2012). Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.Journal of Applied Psychology,97(4), 825-841. Green, K. A., Lpez, M., Wysocki, A., Kepner, K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools.University of Florida,1(4):1-3 Guillaume, Y. R., Dawson, J. F., Woods, S. A., Sacramento, C. A., West, M. A. (2013). Getting diversity at work to work: What we know and what we still don't know.Journal of occupational and organizational psychology,86(2), 123-141. Kirton, G., Greene, A. M. (2015).The dynamics of managing diversity: A critical approach. Routledge. Kulik, C. T. (2014). Working below and above the line: The researchpractice gap in diversity management.Human Resource Management Journal,24(2), 129-144. Lu, C. M., Chen, S. J., Huang, P. C., Chien, J. C. (2015). Effect of diversity on human resource management and organizational performance.Journal of Business Research,68(4), 857-861. Okoro, E. A., Washington, M. C. (2012). Workforce diversity and organizational communication: Analysis of human capital performance and productivity.Journal of Diversity Management (Online),7(1), 57-65 Podsiadlowski, A., Grschke, D., Kogler, M., Springer, C., Van Der Zee, K. (2013). Managing a culturally diverse workforce: Diversity perspectives in organizations.International Journal of Intercultural Relations,37(2), 159-175 Richard, O. C., Miller, C. D. (2013). Considering diversity as a source of competitive advantage in organizations.The Oxford handbook of diversity and work, 239-250. Singh, B., Winkel, D. E., Selvarajan, T. T. (2013). Managing diversity at work: Does psychological safety hold the key to racial differences in employee performance?.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,86(2), 242-263. Travers, J., Smaldone, A., Gross Cohn, E. (2015). Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?.Policy, Politics, Nursing Practice,16(3-4), 109-116. Vance, C. M., Paik, Y. (2015).Managing a global workforce. Routledge. Visconti, G. (2015). Legislation Without Empathy: Race and Ethnicity in LIS.Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research,10(2), 1-9 Wagner III, J. A., Hollenbeck, J. R. (2014).Organizational behavior: Securing competitive advantage. Routledge.